Earth is unique among the terrestrial planets in our solar system in having a fluid envelope that fosters life. The secrets behind Earth’s habitable climate are well-tuned cycles of carbon (C) and other volatiles. While on time-scales of ten to thousands of years the chemistry of fluids in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere is dictated by fluxes of carbon between near surface reservoirs, over hundreds of millions to billions of years it is maintained by chemical interactions of carbon between Earth’s interior, more specifically the mantle, and the exosphere (Berner 1999). This is because of the fact that...

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