Carbon can be a major constituent of crustal and mantle fluids, occurring both as dissolved ionic species (e.g., carbonate ions or organic acids) and molecular species (e.g., CO2, CO, CH4, and more complex organic compounds). The chemistry of dissolved carbon changes dramatically with pressure (P) and temperature (T). In aqueous fluids at low P and T, molecular carbon gas species such as CO2 and CH4 saturate at low concentration to form a separate phase. With modest increases in P and T, these molecular species become fully miscible with...

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