Ice has a very rich phase diagram (Petrenko and Whitworth 1999) as shown in Figure 11. Up to now, sixteen crystalline phases have been identified experimentally. All crystalline phases except ice X consist of water molecules connected to four adjacent ones by hydrogen bonds. Broadly speaking, the crystalline phases of ice can be described as follows: the low-pressure forms (P < ~1 GPa) consist of a unique hydrogen-bond network (1HBN). The high-pressure forms (~1 GPa < P < ~80 GPa) are made up of two interpenetrating networks (2HBN); they are often referred to as self-clathrates. Ice I...

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