It is widely recognized that Earth sciences were revolutionized when continental drift proposed by Wegener in 1912 took the more comprehensive form of plate tectonics. Following the early suggestion of Holmes, Hess proposed in the early sixties what missed to Wegener’s model: a mechanism and a driving force, i.e., the presence of large flows within the convecting mantle to evacuate the internal heat. The Earth appears now as a dynamic system dominated by flows and deformation processes almost everywhere: convective flow in the liquid core (which is the source of the Earth magnetic field), slow deformation of the hot (viscous?)...

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