In this brief article, various types of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are introduced, in particular, those that are applicable to systems in extreme regimes of temperature and pressure. References to longer articles have been given where detailed discussion of applications and algorithms appear.

One does QMC for the same reason as one does classical simulations; there is no other method able to treat exactly the quantum many-body problem aside from the direct simulation method where electrons and ions are directly represented as particles, instead of as a “fluid” as is done in mean-field based methods. However, quantum systems are...

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