Minerals are intrinsically resistant to the processes that homogenize silicate liquids—their compositions thus yield an archive of volcanic and magmatic processes that are invisible at the whole rock scale. Minerals and their inclusions record diverse magma compositions, the depths and temperatures of magma storage, the nature of open system processes, and the rates at which magmas ascend. The potential for understanding volcanic systems through minerals and their inclusions has long been recognized (Sorby 1858). Sorby’s (1863) study of James Hall’s reversal experiments helped resolve the “basalt controversy” in favor of a volcanic origin, while Zirkel’s (1863) discovery of...

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