Volatile components enter the atmosphere, oceans, and other surface waters through pre-, syn-, and post-eruptive volcanic processes that involve a variety of fluids. Aluminosilicate-poor fluids include aqueous or carbonic to sulfide-, sulfate-, chloride-, fluoride-, carbonate-, and phosphate-rich compositions in volcanic environments, but other more complex combinations of these constituents may be involved (Giggenbach 1977; Roedder 1984, 1992; Lowenstern 1995). Other, rare gases and dissolved constituents (e.g., H2, N2, He, Ar, H3BO3, Hg, CH4 and other hydrocarbon compounds, metals, and metalloids) are also present, but in general...

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