Mineral-fluid equilibria play a key role in governing the chemical evolution of modern submarine hydrothermal systems (Seyfried et al. 1999, 2004; Foustoukos and Seyfried 2005). Seawater circulating through high permeability zones of the upper oceanic crust, reaches areas close to the brittle-ductile boundary, where high temperature and pressure conditions enhance water/rock interactions, characterized by formation of hydrous alteration minerals and compositional changes in seawater chemistry, particularly enrichment of dissolved volatiles and transition metals (Fig. 11) (Kelley et al. 2002; German and Von Damm 2003). The buoyant hydrothermal fluids ultimately vent at...

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