Many developed nations including the U.S.A. have increasingly older populations as birth rates have declined and life expectancy has increased over the twentieth century. A corresponding factor of two increase in demand for artificial joint and dental implants is anticipated over the next thirty years (Piehler 2000). The development of biomaterials for orthopaedic and dental implants with improved properties and durability in the human body is critical to deal with this aging population. Broadly speaking, the first-generation of biomaterials was bioinert, whereas bioactive and bioresorbable materials represented improved, second-generation materials. Still, one third to one half of the...

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