The term reactive oxygen species, ROS, is defined by the US National Library of Medicine (NIH 2006) as:

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“Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include singlet oxygen; superoxides; peroxides; hydroxyl radical; and hypochlorous acid. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of phagocytes, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to nucleic acids; proteins; and lipids.”

This chapter explores the role of minerals in the formation of reactive oxygen species. Five different mechanisms by which minerals may promote the formation and transformation of ROS species are...

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