In radiographic methods, the attenuation of an incident beam on passing through an object is used to study the internal structure of this object. The availability of techniques to “look inside” large, optically intransparent objects without having to destroy them is obviously appealing and has had a profound impact in many fields, most clearly in medicine, but also in condensed matter studies. The development of radiography started with Röntgen’s discovery of X-rays in 1895, where the absorption of X-rays by bones were demonstrated publicly in 1896 by obtaining a radiograph of a hand. The medical applications were obvious, and already...

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