The Earth’s upper mantle may contain substantial amounts of water dissolved in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) such as the Mg2SiO4 polymorphs, pyroxenes and garnets. This water, incorporated into the crystal lattice as hydrogen defects, can have a profound influence on the physical properties of the mantle, even when present at low concentrations. An understanding of these defects at the atomic level is therefore of fundamental importance for the development of models of the evolution and dynamics of the Earth’s mantle.

The incorporation of hydrogen and its influence on the properties of NAMs has been an active area...

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