Hydrogen1 in Earth’s interior is known to play a key role in a number of processes. Consequently, inferring the distribution of hydrogen is a critical step in our study of dynamics and evolution of Earth. Usually, hydrogen distribution is inferred from two types of samples at the surface. First, a magma may contain hydrogen (water), and under some conditions the water content of the magma can be quenched upon cooling. In these cases, measurements of the water content of the magma provide us with some constraints on the hydrogen (water) content of the source region (if we know the...

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