Decades of work have shown that trace- to minor-amounts of hydrous components commonly occur in minerals whose chemical formula would be normally written without any hydrogen, namely, the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs). When the concentrations of the hydrous components are several tenths of a percent by weight or higher, a variety of analytical methods such as weight loss on heating, X-ray cell parameters, X-ray structure refinement, Karl-Fischer titrations, or even careful electron microprobe analyses can be used to establish their concentrations (e.g., Aines and Rossman 1991). However, for most NAMs, accurate determinations with these common analytical methods prove difficult if...

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