Sulfide minerals precipitate from hydrothermal solution where their constituent metals and sulfide are more stable residing in the solid than in aqueous solution. An understanding of how and why sulfide minerals precipitate means understanding what chemical species hold metals and sulfide in solution, and what fundamental chemical and physical processes may liberate those reactants to precipitate in solids–processes such as pH increase, chemical reduction, dilution or cooling.

In the natural setting, the fundamental chemical and physical drivers of sulfide precipitation are a response to a wide range of processes. For example, pH increases where acidic hydrothermal fluids react with feldspars...

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