Spectroscopic methods are the most direct and powerful means of obtaining experimental information on the electronic structures of materials. They also provide crucial information on aspects of crystal structure, crystal chemistry, solution chemistry and chemical speciation in mineralogical or geochemical systems. Many advanced methods for the elemental analysis of solids, surfaces and solutions are also based on various spectroscopies.

In this chapter, we review applications of spectroscopic techniques to sulfides, particularly to the bulk solids, but also noting the importance of spectroscopic studies to the investigation of surfaces, fine particle solids, and solutions. Certain of these latter topics, particularly the...

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