The current state of understanding of the lunar interior is the sum of nearly four decades of work and a range of exploration programs spanning that same time period. Missions of the 1960s including the Rangers, Surveyors, and Lunar Orbiters, as well as Earth-based telescopic studies, laid the groundwork for the Apollo program and provided a basic understanding of the surface, its stratigraphy, and chronology. Through a combination of remote sensing, surface exploration, and sample return, the Apollo missions provided a general picture of the lunar interior and spawned the concept of the lunar magma ocean. In particular, the discovery...

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