Numerous living organisms form minerals. These biogenic minerals, or biominerals, are composite materials containing an organic matrix and nano- or micro-scale amorphous or crystalline minerals. In this chapter we will review the molecular aspects of biomineralization and describe as completely as is currently possible the organic-mineral interface, the location in which organic-mineral interactions occur. Biomineral composite materials include bone, dentine, enamel, statoliths, otoliths, mollusk and crustacean shells, coccolith scales, eggshells, sponge silica skeletons, algal, radiolarian and diatom silica micro-shells, and a variety of transition metal minerals produced by different bacteria (Lowenstam and Weiner 1989; Addadi and Weiner 1997...

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