Sedimentary basins, both modern and ancient, cover most of Earth’s land and subsea surface, and provide some of the best natural laboratories for studying and constraining geologic processes. The record of sedimentation, burial, erosion, and uplift provides a rich history that can be combined with various analytical and modeling techniques to evaluate: (1) processes that lead to basin formation; (2) deformation of regions related to plate tectonic effects; (3) timing and duration of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and trapping; (4) past and present effects of fluid flow in basin deposits; and (5) past climate change. Sedimentary basins have been classified by...

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