Numerous spectroscopic techniques have been applied to the epidote minerals to characterize their structure and crystal chemistry. The substitution of transition metal ions Mn, Cr, and V, besides Fe, in the different crystallographic sites of epidote minerals and with different valence states has been studied by optical absorption spectroscopy. These studies mainly focused on the determination of (i) the site preferences of the different transition metal ions within the epidote minerals (e.g., Burns and Strens 1967; Tsang and Ghose 1971), (ii) the physical and structural characteristics of these sites as a function of composition, temperature and/or pressure (e.g.,...

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