Iron, the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: 54Fe (5.84%), 56Fe (91.76%), 57Fe (2.12%), and 58Fe (0.28%), and the natural, mass-dependent isotope variations of Fe in the rock record span a range of ~4 per mil (‰) in 56Fe/54Fe ratios (Fig. 11). The field of Fe isotope geochemistry is relatively new but has received considerable attention because it may allow us to gain a better understanding of how Fe is cycled in different environments. Iron typically occurs as either reduced ferrous Fe in...

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