This chapter is devoted to the analytical methods employed for making high precision isotope ratio measurements that preserve naturally occurring mass-dependent isotopic variations. The biggest challenge in making these types of measurements is deconvolving mass-dependent isotopic fractionation produced in the laboratory and mass spectrometer, from naturally occurring mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, because the patterns of isotope variation produced by these processes are identical. Therefore, the main theme of this chapter is the description and mathematical treatment of mass-dependent isotopic variations and the possible pitfalls in deconvolving instrumental mass bias from naturally occurring mass-dependent isotopic variations. This chapter will not attempt to...

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