Of the eighty-three naturally occurring elements that are not radioactive or have half lives long enough to be considered stable (≥109 yrs), nearly three-quarters have two or more isotopes. Variations in the isotopic ratios of a number of these elements, including H, C, N, O, and S, provide the foundation for the field of stable isotope geochemistry. Investigations of variations in the isotopic compositions of these traditional elements have provided important constraints on their sources in natural rocks, minerals, and fluids. These studies have focused on a range of problems including planetary geology, the origin and evolution of...

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