As stated in an Chapter 4, prokaryotes of both Domains or Superkingdoms, the Bacteria and the Archaea, mediate the formation of a large number of diverse minerals. They are known to do this either through biologically induced mineralization (BIM) (Lowenstam 1981) (the subject of Chapter 4 in this volume; Frankel and Bazylinski 2003) or biologically controlled mineralization (BCM). The latter has also been referred to as organic matrix-mediated mineralization (Lowenstam 1981) and boundary-organized biomineralization (Mann 1986). There are several important differences between BIM and BCM that will be discussed in detail in this...

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