Some of the major events in human evolution occurred during the Middle Pleistocene. These include the evolutionary rise of the Neanderthals in Eurasia and of anatomically modern humans either in Africa or on a broader geographical front, in addition to major biogeographic changes among mammals including the hominine colonization of Europe. Prior to the Middle Pleistocene, the application of Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon dating has yielded a relatively detailed chronological picture for the earlier phases of hominid evolution, and from c. 50 ky radiocarbon dating provides the backbone of our chronology for the extinction of the Neanderthals, colonization of Europe by...

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