Although the advantages of using grazing incidence (GI) techniques in X-ray scattering and spectroscopy have been known for a long time (Yoneda and Horiuchi 1971), the use of such geometry has only been developed fully with the advent of highly collimated X-ray sources, particularly synchrotrons. It is now possible to place the entire output of a synchrotron insertion device (wiggler or undulator) onto the surface of a flat crystal or analogous sample with minimal angular divergence at the critical angle for total external reflection. This allows the application of unprecedented X-ray intensity in a region confined within a...

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