With a penetration depth ranging from microns to millimeters, Ångstrom-wavelength X-rays are an ideal probe for studying atomic-scale buried structures found in the natural environment, such as impurities in minerals and adsorbed ions at mineral-water interfaces. But this penetration depth also makes an X-ray beam inherently less useful as a spatially localized probe. Using the superposition of two coherently coupled X-ray beams, however, makes it possible to localize the X-ray intensity into interference fringes of an X-ray standing wave (XSW) field, as illustrated in Figure 11, and thereby attain a spatially localized periodic probe with a length scale...

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