The many tools with which one can probe the atomic-scale structures of surfaces include electron-, ion-, and X-ray based techniques (e.g., low energy electron diffraction, Rutherford ion backscattering, X-ray diffraction, photoelectron diffraction), as well as scanning probe microscopies (e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy) (Somorjai 1981; Woodruff and Delchar 1986; Zangwill 1988; van Hove 1999). These tools have been extremely valuable for revealing surfaces structures and processes at ultra-high vacuum conditions. However, most of these surface-sensitive techniques suffer from the substantial shortcoming, from the perspective of mineral-fluid interface studies, that they cannot be...

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