The surface defines the interface between a mineral and its surroundings. In a dynamic context, reactions that occur between apatites and the environments in which they exist take place at or through their surfaces. This includes, but is not restricted to, crystal growth, dissolution, and surface-mediated reactions such as sorption, surface complexation, and catalysis (Hochella and White 1990). Because this interface is partly defined by the nature of the environment around the crystal, the properties, structure and chemistry of the crystal surface are always different than those of the bulk, and can be quite varied depending on the...

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