The 2:1 mica layer is composed of two opposing tetrahedral (T) sheets with an octahedral (M) sheet between to form a “TMT” layer (Fig. 1a1). The mica structure has a general formula of A M2–3 T4 O10 X2 [in natural micas: A = interlayer cations, usually K, Na, Ca, Ba, and rarely Rb, Cs, NH4, H3O, and Sr; M = octahedral cations, generally Mg, Fe2+, Al, and Fe3+, but other cations such as Li, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn can occur also...

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