Nanoparticles are discrete nanometer (10−9 m)-scale assemblies of atoms. Thus, they have dimensions between those characteristic of ions (10−10 m) and those of macroscopic materials. They are interesting because the number of atoms in the particles is small enough, and a large enough fraction of them are at, or near surfaces, to significantly modify the particle’s atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures, physical and chemical properties, and reactivity relative to the bulk material. Nanoparticle surfaces themselves may be distinctive. Particles may be terminated by atomic planes or clusters that are not common, or not found, at surfaces of the...

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