It has long been known that the solubilities of sulfide ore minerals in hydrothermal fluids results from the complexation of metals such as Cu, Zn and Fe by Cl and HS ligands (Seward and Barnes 1997). Complexation of heavy metals such as As, Pb and Cd by mineral surfaces controls the mobility of such metals in the environment. Geochemists need to have a reliable thermodynamic data set to predict mineral solubilities and metal sorption reactions. Such data are found by fitting measured solubilities and sorption isotherms to a set of stability constants for aqueous and surface complexes. However,...

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