As the degree of difficulty in synthesizing single crystals at high pressure and temperature increases, powder X-ray diffraction becomes a primary technique for determination of crystal structure, unit cell parameters as a function of pressure and temperature, and phase transformations. The use of intense synchrotron radiation has revolutionized high-pressure and high-temperature research. Increases in X-ray intensity by several orders of magnitude have enabled researchers to study very small samples and collect diffraction data in time scale on the order of a minute. Such advances have opened new possibilities for studying materials under extreme high pressure and temperature conditions and time-dependent...

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