Global water scarcity is intensifying. Economizing on water use will be an important aspect of any effective response. Water recycling and reuse technologies offer possibilities for more extensive use of water, depending on cost. Institutional responses, such as the use of rational pricing and the creation of water markets or exchanges, promise to improve water-use efficiency. Consumer education is a simple and inexpensive means of economizing on water in the urban and agricultural sectors. Rationing is effective in managing short-term interruptions such as drought. Point-of-use technology will also offer opportunities for economizing on many water uses.