The reconstruction of oceanic paleoredox conditions on Earth is essential for investigating links between biospheric oxygenation and major periods of biological innovation and extinction, and for unravelling feedback mechanisms associated with paleoenvironmental change. The occurrence of anoxic, iron-rich (ferruginous) oceanic conditions often goes unrecognized, but refined techniques are currently providing evidence to suggest that ferruginous deep-ocean conditions were likely dominant throughout much of Earth's history. The prevalence of this redox state suggests that a detailed appraisal of the influence of ferruginous conditions on the evolution of biogeochemical cycles, climate, and the biosphere is increasingly required.

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