Soil bioremediation is a complex and costly process that aims to restore contaminated sites to environmentally sustainable conditions using microorganisms. The process relies upon the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic molecules, but it also depends on the microorganisms coming into contact with the contaminants, and the environment in the contaminated soil being conducive to the survival of the bacteria. A wide variety of techniques have been developed to ensure that these latter two constraints are overcome and to enhance contaminant biodegradation. Future developments in bioremediation are likely to lead to a reduction in both the energy used and the resulting pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions.

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