New, sophisticated instrumentation and improvements in computer models have expanded enormously our understanding of how dust transport impacts climate and biological processes in the oceans. For example, the nutrients and harmful substances contained in dust can affect the development of microalgae in the ocean. The initial composition of dust and its chemical transformations during transport determine the way dust interacts with ocean ecosystems and, more generally, with clouds and the climate as a whole. These new developments open the door for future research initiatives that will require the collaboration of scientists from several disciplines to fully understand the effects of dust in the atmosphere and ocean ecosystems.

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