Analytical developments have been crucial for the advancement of molecular biomarker research in the Earth sciences. In this chapter, we focus on two areas where recent technological developments have profoundly impacted the use and relevance of molecular organic biomarkers: (1) the increase in spatial resolution heralded by imaging techniques, which results in biomarker-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction with unprecedented temporal resolution; and (2) the accurate, simultaneous characterization of a wide range of compounds in complex matrices enabled by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

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