By exploiting the penetration, attenuation, and scattering properties of neutrons, images of matter in two or three dimensions reveal information unobtainable using other probes. Despite the limitation in brilliance of neutron sources, several neutron-based imaging techniques are essential to different aspects of modern geoscience. Typical examples include the evaluation of porosity in rocks and sediments, mapping of light elements in solids, noninvasive probing of cultural heritage objects, investigations of thick engineering components, and the exploration of diffusion and percolation processes of fluids within porous matrices, organo-inorganic composites, and living organisms. Techniques under development include simultaneous neutron and X-ray tomography in heterogeneous media, Bragg-edge imaging, and the possibility of porosimetry from dark-field imaging.

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