The development of sophisticated sample environments to control temperature, pressure, and magnetic field has grown in parallel with neutron source and instrumentation development. High-pressure apparatus, with high- and low-temperature capability, novel designs for diamond cells, and large volume presses are matched with next-generation neutron sources and moderator designs to provide unprecedented neutron beam brightness. Recent developments in sample environments are expanding the pressure–temperature space accessible to neutron scattering experiments. Researchers are using new capabilities and an increased understanding of the fundamentals of structural and magnetic transitions to explore new territories, including hydrogenous minerals (e.g., ices and hydrates) and magnetic structural phase diagrams.

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