The interior of the Earth is an important reservoir for elements that are chemically bound in minerals, melts, and gases. Analyses of the proportions of redox-sensitive elements in ancient and contemporary natural rocks provide information on the temporal redox evolution of our planet. Natural inclusions trapped in diamonds, xenoliths, and erupted magmas provide unique windows into the redox conditions of the deep Earth, and reveal evidence for heterogeneities in the mantle’s oxidation state. By examining the natural rock record, we assess how redox boundaries in the deep Earth have controlled elemental cycling and what effects these boundaries have had on the temporal and chemical evolution of oxygen fugacity in the Earth’s interior and atmosphere.

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