The oxidation–reduction (‘redox’) state is an important intensive property of any geologic system and is typically measured (and reported) as either the redox potential (Eh) or the oxygen fugacity (fO2). These two concepts cover the whole spectrum of geologic systems: from low-temperature aqueous and sedimentary systems to high-temperature rock-forming environments. The redox state determines the speciation of a fluid phase and exercises fundamental controls on phase relations and geochemical evolution. Here, we review the concepts that underpin the redox state and outline a framework for describing and quantifying the concept of the oxidation state.

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