Geoscientists quickly recognized the broad applicability of Raman micro-probe spectroscopy to the Earth and planetary sciences, especially after commercially built microprobe instruments became available in the early 1980s. Raman spectra are sensitive to even minor (chemical or structural) perturbations within chemical bonds in (even amorphous) solids, liquids, and gases and can, thus, help identify, characterize, and differentiate between individual minerals, fluid inclusions, glasses, carbonaceous materials, solid solution phases, strain in minerals, and dissolved species in multi-component solutions. The articles in this issue explore how Raman spectroscopy has deepened and broadened our understanding of geological and extraterrestrial materials and processes.

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