Since land plants emerged from swampy coastlines over 400 million years ago, they have played a fundamental role in shaping the Earth system. Roots and associated fungi increase rock weathering rates, providing access to nutrients, while altering atmospheric CO2. As soils weather, the dissolution of primary minerals forces plants to rely on recycling and atmospheric deposition of rock-derived nutrients. Thus, for many terrestrial ecosystems, weathering ultimately constrains primary production (carbon uptake) and decomposition (carbon loss). These constraints are most acute in agricultural systems, which rely on mined fertilizer rather than the recycling of organic material to maintain production. Humans now mine similar amounts of some elements as weather out of rocks globally. This increase in supply has myriad environmental consequences.

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