Terroir involves the complex interplay of climate, soil, geology, and viticulture, all of which influence the character and quality of a wine from a given grape variety, rootstock, and viticultural practice. Contrary to the assertions of some wine writers, the minerals and character of the soil cannot be tasted in the wine. Rather, it is their effect on the grape ripening process that gives certain wines a “sense of place”. Most important is water availability, which is a function of climate (rainfall and humidity) and soil water-holding capacity. The soil structure reflects the geologic history of a region and may have evolved over millions of years as influenced by faulting, weathering, and bedrock mineralogy. Far-field effects such as glaciation and resultant sea-level change can affect landscapes that are thousands of kilometers apart.