Characterizing fossils and quantifying paleoenvironmental proxies at a detailed scale is a significant challenge. Three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions are becoming increasingly common, and new imaging approaches, such as synchrotron-based fast X-ray scanning and full-field multispectral imaging, now provide the means to (1) describe fossil morphology at a very fine scale, (2) decipher long-term alteration processes, and (3) better identify conservation requirements. These developments have opened new research avenues for the study of complex heterogeneous materials at the intersection between paleontology, biology, mineralogy, geochemistry, conservation science, materials science, and analytical instrumentation.

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