Arc magmas above subduction zones hold abundant fluid-mobile elements attributed to fluids released from the dehydrating subducted oceanic crust. However, the quantity of trace elements in the fluids and their evolution with the metamorphic processes during subduction and exhumation are still unclear. The precipitation sequence of vein minerals preserves the nature of multi-stage high-pressure (HP) metamorphic fluids and the fingerprint of mass exchange in deep subduction zones. In this contribution, we conducted detailed petrological studies and phase equilibria modeling on a unique HP omphacite-rich vein and its host eclogite from the Chinese southwestern Tianshan. The host eclogite consists mainly of garnet, omphacite, epidote, glaucophane, phengite, quartz, and rutile. Garnet in the eclogite records prograde subduction and early exhumation characterized by decompression heating at P-T conditions of ~2.4–2.6 GPa and 460–540 °C. The embedded omphacite-rich vein has similar mineral assemblage to the host eclogite. Garnet grains in this vein are predominantly distributed along or intersect the vein wall, which record similar eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions to that of the host eclogite. Omphacite is dominant in the vein, while epidote and glaucophane occur interstitially. Phase equilibria modeling reveals a sequential growth of garnet-dominated, omphacite-dominated, and epidote-dominated assemblages from fluids originating from the breakdown of different hydrous minerals. These lines of evidence suggest that the formation of multi-stage HP fluids are a continuous long-term process with a spontaneously short-distance transport and sequential mineral precipitation. Calculated fluid compositions demonstrate that the fluids released by lawsonite breakdown during exhumation have great potential to modify the trace element systematics of arc magmas. Our findings reveal the nature and evolution of multi-stage HP metamorphic fluids from internal sources during subduction and exhumation of oceanic crust, providing valuable insights into the chemical compositions of arc magmas.

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