Abstract

The surface enthalpies of manganese oxide phases, hausmannite (Mn3O4), bixbyite (Mn2O3), and pyrolusite (MnO2), were determined using high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry in conjunction with water adsorption calorimetry. The energy for the hydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 0.96 ± 0.08 J/m2, of Mn2O3 is 1.29 ± 0.10 J/m2, and of MnO2 is 1.64 ± 0.10 J/m2. The energy for the anhydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 1.62 ± 0.08 J/m2, of Mn2O3 is 1.77 ± 0.10 J/m2, and of MnO2 is 2.05 ± 0.10 J/m2. Supporting preliminary findings (Navrotsky et al. 2010), the spinel phase (hausmannite) has a lower surface energy than bixbyite, whereas the latter has a smaller surface energy than pyrolusite. Oxidation-reduction phase equilibria at the nanoscale are shifted to favor the phases of lower surface energy—Mn3O4 relative to Mn2O3 and Mn2O3 relative to MnO2. We also report rapidly reversible structural and phase changes associated with water adsorption/desorption for the nanophase manganese oxide assemblages.

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