Abstract

Fe-rich “oxydravite” and dravite from the Late Proterozoic ophiolitic mélange of the Arabo-Nubian Shield, located in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, were structurally and chemically characterized by using crystal structure refinement based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, electron microprobe analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Structural formulae obtained by optimization procedures indicate disordering of Al, Mg, and Fe2+ over the Y and Z sites, and an ordering of Fe3+ at Y. The disordering can be explained by the substitution mechanisms 2YMg+ZAl+WOH = 2YAl+ZMg+WO2− and 2YFe2++ZFe3++WOH = 2YFe3++ZFe2++WO2−, which are consistent with reducing the mismatch in dimensions between YO6 and ZO6 octahedra.

To explain the Mg-Al disordering process, as well as the occurrence of B at the T site in tourmaline, analogies have been drawn between the crystal structure of tourmaline and that of lizardite. A critical constraint in both structures is the geometrical fit of the six-membered tetrahedral ring with the attached group of three YO6 octahedra. In tourmaline, the disordering of Mg and Al over Y and Z relieves the strain due to the misfit in dimensions of the larger triads of edge-sharing MgO6 octahedra and the smaller Si6O18 tetrahedral rings. In Al-rich tourmaline, where the octahedral cluster is smaller, the strain can be relieved by incorporating B in the tetrahedra. An opposite effect is observed by substitution of Al for Si at the tetrahedral site in Mg-rich tourmaline. Because the Al radius is intermediate between those of Mg and Si, Al plays an important structural role in accommodating the potential misfit between YO6, ZO6, and TO4 polyhedra. The amount of Al and its distribution in the structure strongly affects the values of the unit-cell parameters of tourmaline and yields volume variations according to a quadratic model. This results from the effect of ZAl combined with the occurrence of B at T in Al-rich tourmaline. ZAl has a greater effect than YAl as long as Al does not fully occupy the Z site.

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