Clathrate hydrates are of an immediate and practical concern, because of the hazards they pose to oil and gas drilling and production operations in both deep marine and onshore Arctic environments. Drilling operations have encountered numerous problems (gas kicks, blowouts, and fires) when gas hydrates are penetrated, due to the large and often uncontrolled gas release from their dissociation. In addition, the conditions in the deep marine oil and gas production facilities and many kinds of pipelines can promote the growth of clathrate hydrates. In these situations, they can form costly and hazardous blockages in pipelines and sub-sea wellheads. Flow...

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